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现代Javascript秘籍

Javascript无疑是近几年网络和App的热门,特别是从ES6开始,现代Javascript开启了阿里巴巴的宝藏。Node.js给几乎所有的现代Javascript Frame带来了“原力”,Facebook的React修改了软件执照,更加雄心勃勃;Angular 2和Native Script是Web和统一手机App的开发利器;其他诸如Vue.js, Node.ExpressJs等等都赋予了现代Javascript极大的活力。如果你不会Javascript,你可能真的落伍了。

现代Javascript秘籍不是入门教程,而是想帮你解决使用Javascript开发经常会碰到的问题,特别当你在现代项目编写现代代码中挣扎时,浏览一下这个秘籍,马上就有答案。这样的干货,“一般人,我不告诉他!”

原文链接:https://mbeaudru.github.io/

抄录:

Modern JavaScript Cheatsheet

mbeaudru.github.io
Introduction

Motivation
This document is a cheatsheet for JavaScript you will frequently encounter in modern projects and most contemporary sample code.

This guide is not intended to teach you JavaScript from the ground up, but to help developers with basic knowledge who may struggle to get familiar with modern codebases (or let’s say to learn React for instance) because of the JavaScript concepts used.

Besides, I will sometimes provide personal tips that may be debatable but will take care to mention that it’s a personal recommendation when I do so.

 

Note: Most of the concepts introduced here are coming from a JavaScript language update (ES2015, often called ES6). You can find new features added by this update here; it’s very well done.

 

Complementary Resources
When you struggle to understand a notion, I suggest you look for answers on the following resources:

Table of Contents

Notions

Variable declaration: var, const, let
In JavaScript, there are three keywords available to declare a variable, and each has its differences. Those are var, let and const.

Short explanation
Variables declared with const keyword can’t be reassigned, while let and var can.

I recommend always declaring your variables with const by default, and with let if you need to mutate it or reassign it later.

Sample code
const person = “Nick”;
person = “John” // Will raise an error, person can’t be reassigned

let person = “Nick”;
person = “John”;
console.log(person) // “John”, reassignment is allowed with let

Detailed explanation
The scope of a variable roughly means “where is this variable available in the code”.

var
var declared variables are function scoped, meaning that when a variable is created in a function, everything in that function can access that variable. Besides, a function scoped variable created in a function can’t be accessed outside this function.

I recommend you to picture it as if an X scoped variable meant that this variable was a property of X.

function myFunction() {
var myVar = “Nick”;
console.log(myVar); // “Nick” – myVar is accessible inside the function
}
console.log(myVar); // Throws a ReferenceError, myVar is not accessible outside the function.

Still focusing on the variable scope, here is a more subtle example:

function myFunction() {
var myVar = “Nick”;
if (true) {
var myVar = “John”;
console.log(myVar); // “John”
// actually, myVar being function scoped, we just erased the previous myVar value “Nick” for “John”
}
console.log(myVar); // “John” – see how the instructions in the if block affected this value
}
console.log(myVar); // Throws a ReferenceError, myVar is not accessible outside the function.

Besides, var declared variables are moved to the top of the scope at execution. This is what we call var hoisting.

This portion of code:

console.log(myVar) // undefined — no error raised
var myVar = 2;

is understood at execution like:

var myVar;
console.log(myVar) // undefined — no error raised
myVar = 2;

let
var and let are about the same, but let declared variables

are block scoped
are not accessible before they are assigned
can’t be re-declared in the same scope
Let’s see the impact of block-scoping taking our previous example:

function myFunction() {
let myVar = “Nick”;
if (true) {
let myVar = “John”;
console.log(myVar); // “John”
// actually, myVar being block scoped, we just created a new variable myVar.
// this variable is not accessible outside this block and totally independent
// from the first myVar created !
}
console.log(myVar); // “Nick”, see how the instructions in the if block DID NOT affect this value
}
console.log(myVar); // Throws a ReferenceError, myVar is not accessible outside the function.

Now, what it means for let (and const) variables for not being accessible before being assigned:

console.log(myVar) // raises a ReferenceError !
let myVar = 2;

By contrast with var variables, if you try to read or write on a let or const variable before they are assigned an error will be raised. This phenomenon is often called Temporal dead zone or TDZ.

 

Note: Technically, let and const variables declarations are being hoisted too, but not their assignation. Since they’re made so that they can’t be used before assignation, it intuitively feels like there is no hoisting, but there is. Find out more on this very detailed explanation here if you want to know more.

 

In addition, you can’t re-declare a let variable:

let myVar = 2;
let myVar = 3; // Raises a SyntaxError

const
const declared variables behave like let variables, but also they can’t be reassigned.

To sum it up, const variables:

are block scoped
are not accessible before being assigned
can’t be re-declared in the same scope
can’t be reassigned
const myVar = “Nick”;
myVar = “John” // raises an error, reassignment is not allowed

const myVar = “Nick”;
const myVar = “John” // raises an error, re-declaration is not allowed

But there is a subtlety : const variables are not immutable ! Concretely, it means that object and array const declared variables can be mutated.

For objects:

const person = {
name: ‘Nick’
};
person.name = ‘John’ // this will work ! person variable is not completely reassigned, but mutated
console.log(person.name) // “John”
person = “Sandra” // raises an error, because reassignment is not allowed with const declared variables

For arrays:

const person = [];
person.push(‘John’); // this will work ! person variable is not completely reassigned, but mutated
console.log(person[0]) // “John”
person = [“Nick”] // raises an error, because reassignment is not allowed with const declared variables

External resource
Arrow function
The ES6 JavaScript update has introduced arrow functions, which is another way to declare and use functions. Here are the benefits they bring:

More concise
this is picked up from surroundings
implicit return
Sample code
Concision and implicit return
function double() { xreturn x * 2; } // Traditional way
console.log(double(2)) // 4

const double = x => x * 2; // Same function written as an arrow function with implicit return
console.log(double(2)) // 4

this reference
In an arrow function, this is equal to the this value of the enclosing execution context. Basically, with arrow functions, you don’t have to do the “that = this” trick before calling a function inside a function anymore.

function myFunc() {
this.myVar = 0;
setTimeout(() => {
this.myVar++;
console.log(this.myVar) // 1
}, 0);
}

Detailed explanation
Concision
Arrow functions are more concise than traditional functions in many ways. Let’s review all the possible cases:

Implicit VS Explicit return
An explicit return is a function where the return keyword is used in its body.

function double() {
xreturn x * 2; // this function explicitly returns x * 2, return keyword is used
}

In the traditional way of writing functions, the return was always explicit. But with arrow functions, you can do implicit return which means that you don’t need to use the keyword return to return a value.

To do an implicit return, the code must be written in a one-line sentence.

const double = () => {
xreturn x * 2; // Explicit return here
}

Since there only is a return value here, we can do an implicit return.

const double = (x) => x * 2;

To do so, we only need to remove the brackets and the return keyword. That’s why it’s called an implicit return, the return keyword is not there, but this function will indeed return x * 2.

 

Note: If your function does not return a value (with side effects), it doesn’t do an explicit nor an implicit return.

 

Besides, if you want to implicitly return an object you must have parentheses around it since it will conflict with the block braces:

const getPerson = () => ({ name: “Nick”, age: 24 })
console.log(getPerson()) // { name: “Nick”, age: 24 } — object implicitly returned by arrow function

Only one argument
If your function only takes one parameter, you can omit the parentheses around it. If we take back the above double code:

const double = (x) => x * 2; // this arrow function only takes one parameter

Parentheses around the parameter can be avoided:

const double = x => x * 2; // this arrow function only takes one parameter

No arguments
When there is no argument provided to an arrow function, you need to provide parentheses, or it won’t be valid syntax.

() => { // parentheses are provided, everything is fine
const = 2;
xreturn x;
}

=> { // No parentheses, this won’t work!
const = 2;
xreturn x;
}

this reference
To understand this subtlety introduced with arrow functions, you must know how this behaves in JavaScript.

In an arrow function, this is equal to the this value of the enclosing execution context. What it means is that an arrow function doesn’t create a new this, it grabs it from its surrounding instead.

Without arrow function, if you wanted to access a variable from this in a function inside a function, you had to use the that = this or self = this trick.

For instance, using setTimeout function inside myFunc:

function myFunc() {
this.myVar = 0;
var that = this; // that = this trick
setTimeout(
function() { // A new this is created in this function scope
that.myVar++;
console.log(that.myVar) // 1

console.log(this.myVar) // undefined — see function declaration above
},
0
);
}

But with arrow function, this is taken from its surrounding:

function myFunc() {
this.myVar = 0;
setTimeout(
() => { // this taken from surrounding, meaning myFunc here
this.myVar++;
console.log(this.myVar) // 1
},
0
);
}

Useful resources
Function default parameter value
Starting from ES2015 JavaScript update, you can set default value to your function parameters using the following syntax:

function myFunc( = 10) {
xreturn ;
}
xconsole.log(myFunc()) // 10 — no value is provided so x default value 10 is assigned to x in myFunc
console.log(myFunc(5)) // 5 — a value is provided so x is equal to 5 in myFunc

console.log(myFunc(undefined)) // 10 — undefined value is provided so default value is assigned to x
console.log(myFunc(null)) // null — a value (null) is provided, see below for more details

The default parameter is applied in two and only two situations:

No parameter provided
undefined parameter provided
In other words, if you pass in null the default parameter won’t be applied.

 

Note: Default value assignment can be used with destructured parameters as well (see next notion to see an example)

 

External resource
Destructuring objects and arrays
Destructuring is a convenient way of creating new variables by extracting some values from data stored in objects or arrays.

To name a few use cases, destructuring can be used to destructure function parameters or this.props in React projects for instance.

Explanation with sample code
Object
Let’s consider the following object for all the samples:

const person = {
firstName: “Nick”,
lastName: “Anderson”,
age: 35,
sex: “M”
}

Without destructuring

const first = person.firstName;
const age = person.age;
const city = person.city || “Paris”;

With destructuring, all in one line:

const { firstName: first, age, city = “Paris” } = person; // That’s it !

console.log(age) // 35 — A new variable age is created and is equal to person.age
console.log(first) // “Nick” — A new variable first is created and is equal to person.firstName
console.log(firstName) // Undefined — person.firstName exists BUT the new variable created is named first
console.log(city) // “Paris” — A new variable city is created and since person.city is undefined, city is equal to the default value provided “Paris”.

Note : In const { age } = person;, the brackets after const keyword are not used to declare an object nor a block but is the destructuring syntax.

Function parameters
Destructuring is often used to destructure objects parameters in functions.

Without destructuring

function joinFirstLastName(person) {
const firstName = person.firstName;
const lastName = person.lastName;
return firstName + ‘-‘ + lastName;
}

joinFirstLastName(person); // “Nick-Anderson”

In destructuring the object parameter person, we get a more concise function:

function joinFirstLastName({ firstName, lastName }) { // we create firstName and lastName variables by destructuring person parameter
return firstName + ‘-‘ + lastName;
}

joinFirstLastName(person); // “Nick-Anderson”

Destructuring is even more pleasant to use with arrow functions:

const joinFirstLastName = ({ firstName, lastName }) => firstName + ‘-‘ + lastName;

joinFirstLastName(person); // “Nick-Anderson”

Array
Let’s consider the following array:

const myArray = [“a”, “b”, “c”];

Without destructuring

const = xmyArray[0];
const = ymyArray[1];

With destructuring

const [, ] = yxmyArray; // That’s it !

console.log(x) // “a”
console.log(y) // “b”

Useful resources
Array methods – map / filter / reduce
Map, filter and reduce are array methods that are coming from a programming paradigm named functional programming.

To sum it up:

Array.prototype.map() takes an array, does something on its elements and returns an array with the transformed elements.
Array.prototype.filter() takes an array, decides element by element if it should keep it or not and returns an array with the kept elements only
Array.prototype.reduce() takes an array and aggregates the elements into a single value (which is returned)
I recommend to use them as much as possible in following the principles of functional programming because they are composable, concise and elegant.

With those three methods, you can avoid the use of for and forEach loops in most situations. When you are tempted to do a for loop, try to do it with map, filter and reduce composed. You might struggle to do it at first because it requires you to learn a new way of thinking, but once you’ve got it things gets easier.

Sample code
const numbers = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6];
const doubledNumbers = numbers.map(n => n * 2); // [0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12]
const evenNumbers = numbers.filter(n => n % 2 === 0); // [0, 2, 4, 6]
const sum = numbers.reduce((prev, next) => prev + next, 0); // 21

Compute total grade sum for students above 10 by composing map, filter and reduce:

const students = [
{ name: “Nick”, grade: 10 },
{ name: “John”, grade: 15 },
{ name: “Julia”, grade: 19 },
{ name: “Nathalie”, grade: 9 },
];

const aboveTenSum = students
.map(student => student.grade) // we map the students array to an array of their grades
.filter(grade => grade >= 10) // we filter the grades array to keep those above 10
.reduce((prev, next) => prev + next, 0); // we sum all the grades above 10 one by one

console.log(aboveTenSum) // 44 — 10 (Nick) + 15 (John) + 19 (Julia), Nathalie below 10 is ignored

Explanation
Let’s consider the following array of numbers for our examples:

const numbers = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6];

Array.prototype.map()
const doubledNumbers = numbers.map(function() {
nreturn n * 2;
});
console.log(doubledNumbers); // [0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12]

What’s happening here? We are using .map on the numbers array, the map is iterating on each element of the array and passes it to our function. The goal of the function is to produce and return a new value from the one passed so that map can replace it.

Let’s extract this function to make it more clear, just for this once:

const doubleN = function() { nreturn * 2; };
nconst doubledNumbers = numbers.map(doubleN);
console.log(doubledNumbers); // [0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12]

numbers.map(doubleN) produces [doubleN(0), doubleN(1), doubleN(2), doubleN(3), doubleN(4), doubleN(5), doubleN(6)] which is equal to [0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12].

 

Note: If you do not need to return a new array and just want to do a loop that has side effects, you might just want to use a for / forEach loop instead of a map.

 

Array.prototype.filter()
const evenNumbers = numbers.filter(function() {
nreturn n % 2 === 0; // true if “n” is par, false if “n” isn’t
});
console.log(evenNumbers); // [0, 2, 4, 6]

We are using .filter on the numbers array, filter is iterating on each element of the array and passes it to our function. The goal of the function is to return a boolean that will determine whether the current value will be kept or not. Filter then returns the array with only the kept values.

Array.prototype.reduce()
The reduce method goal is to reduce all elements of the array it iterates on into a single value. How it aggregates those elements is up to you.

const sum = numbers.reduce(
function(acc, ) {
nreturn acc + n;
},
0 // accumulator variable value at first iteration step
);

console.log(sum) //21

Just like for .map and .filter methods, .reduce is applied on an array and takes a function as the first parameter.

This time though, there are changes:

.reduce takes two parameters
The first parameter is a function that will be called at each iteration step.

The second parameter is the value of the accumulator variable (acc here) at the first iteration step (read next point to understand).

Function parameters
The function you pass as the first parameter of .reduce takes two parameters. The first one (acc here) is the accumulator variable, whereas the second parameter (n) is the current element.

The accumulator variable is equal to the return value of your function at the previous iteration step. At the first step of the iteration, acc is equal to the value you passed as .reduce second parameter.

At first iteration step
acc = 0 because we passed in 0 as the second parameter for reduce

n = 0 first element of the number array

Function returns acc + n –> 0 + 0 –> 0

At second iteration step
acc = 0 because it’s the value the function returned at the previous iteration step

n = 1 second element of the number array

Function returns acc + n –> 0 + 1 –> 1

At third iteration step
acc = 1 because it’s the value the function returned at the previous iteration step

n = 2 third element of the number array

Function returns acc + n –> 1 + 2 –> 3

At fourth iteration step
acc = 3 because it’s the value the function returned at the previous iteration step

n = 3 fourth element of the number array

Function returns acc + n –> 3 + 3 –> 6

[…] At last iteration step
acc = 15 because it’s the value the function returned at the previous iteration step

n = 6 last element of the number array

Function returns acc + n –> 15 + 6 –> 21

As it is the last iteration step, .reduce returns 21.

External Resource
Spread operator “…”
The spread operator … has been introduced with ES2015 and is used to expand elements of an iterable (like an array) into places where multiple elements can fit.

Sample code
const arr1 = [“a”, “b”, “c”];
const arr2 = […arr1, “d”, “e”, “f”]; // [“a”, “b”, “c”, “d”, “e”, “f”]

function myFunc(x, y, …params) {
console.log();
xconsole.log();
yconsole.log(params)
}

myFunc(“a”, “b”, “c”, “d”, “e”, “f”)
// “a”
// “b”
// [“c”, “d”, “e”, “f”]

const { x, y, … } = { : 1, : 2, : 3, : 4 };
bayxzconsole.log(x); // 1
console.log(y); // 2
console.log(z); // { a: 3, b: 4 }

const n = { x, y, … };
zconsole.log(n); // { x: 1, y: 2, a: 3, b: 4 }

Explanation
In iterables (like arrays)
If we have the two following arrays:

const arr1 = [“a”, “b”, “c”];
const arr2 = [arr1, “d”, “e”, “f”]; // [[“a”, “b”, “c”], “d”, “e”, “f”]

arr2 the first element is an array because arr1 is injected as is into arr2. But what we want is arr2 to be an array of letters. To do so, we can spread the elements of arr1 into arr2.

With spread operator

const arr1 = [“a”, “b”, “c”];
const arr2 = […arr1, “d”, “e”, “f”]; // [“a”, “b”, “c”, “d”, “e”, “f”]

Function rest parameter
In function parameters, we can use the rest operator to inject parameters into an array we can loop in. There is already an argument object bound to every function that is equal to an array of all the parameters passed into the function.

function myFunc() {
for (var = 0; < iiarguments.length; ++) {
iconsole.log(arguments[i]);
}
}

myFunc(“Nick”, “Anderson”, 10, 12, 6);
// “Nick”
// “Anderson”
// 10
// 12
// 6

But let’s say that we want this function to create a new student with its grades and with its average grade. Wouldn’t it be more convenient to extract the first two parameters into two separate variables, and then have all the grades in an array we can iterate over?

That’s exactly what the rest operator allows us to do!

function createStudent(firstName, lastName, …grades) {
// firstName = “Nick”
// lastName = “Anderson”
// [10, 12, 6] — “…” takes all other parameters passed and creates a “grades” array variable that contains them

const avgGrade = grades.reduce((acc, curr) => acc + curr, 0) / grades.length; // computes average grade from grades

return {
firstName: firstName,
lastName: lastName,
grades: grades,
avgGrade: avgGrade
}
}

const student = createStudent(“Nick”, “Anderson”, 10, 12, 6);
console.log(student);
// {
// firstName: “Nick”,
// lastName: “Anderson”,
// grades: [10, 12, 6],
// avgGrade: 9,33
// }

 

Note: createStudent function is bad because we don’t check if grades.length exists or is different from 0. But it’s easier to read this way, so I didn’t handle this case.

 

Object properties spreading
For this one, I recommend you read previous explanations about the rest operator on iterables and function parameters.

const myObj = { : 1, : 2, : 3, : 4 };
bayxconst { x, y, … } = zmyObj; // object destructuring here
console.log(x); // 1
console.log(y); // 2
console.log(z); // { a: 3, b: 4 }

// z is the rest of the object destructured: myObj object minus x and y properties destructured

const n = { x, y, … };
zconsole.log(n); // { x: 1, y: 2, a: 3, b: 4 }

// Here z object properties are spread into n

External resources
Object property shorthand
When assigning a variable to an object property, if the variable name is equal to the property name, you can do the following:

const = 10;
xconst myObj = { };
xconsole.log(myObj.x) // 10

Explanation
Usually (pre-ES2015) when you declare a new object literal and want to use variables as object properties values, you would write this kind of code:

const = 10;
xconst = 20;

yconst myObj = {
x: x, // assigning x variable value to myObj.x
y: y // assigning y variable value to myObj.y
};

console.log(myObj.x) // 10
console.log(myObj.y) // 20

As you can see, this is quite repetitive because the properties name of myObj are the same as the variable names you want to assign to those properties.

With ES2015, when the variable name is the same as the property name, you can do this shorthand:

const = 10;
xconst = 20;

yconst myObj = {
,

};

yxconsole.log(myObj.x) // 10
console.log(myObj.y) // 20

External resources
Promises
A promise is an object which can be returned synchronously from an asynchronous function (ref).

Promises can be used to avoid callback hell, and they are more and more frequently encountered in modern JavaScript projects.

Sample code
const fetchingPosts = new Promise((res, rej) => {
$.get(“/posts”)
.done(posts => res(posts))
.fail(err => rej(err));
});

fetchingPosts
.then(posts => console.log(posts))
.catch(err => console.log(err));

Explanation
When you do an Ajax request the response is not synchronous because you want a resource that takes some time to come. It even may never come if the resource you have requested is unavailable for some reason (404).

To handle that kind of situations, ES2015 has given us promises. Promises can have three different states:

Pending
Fulfilled
Rejected
Let’s say we want to use promises to handle an Ajax request to fetch the resource X.

Create the promise
We firstly are going to create a promise. We will use the jQuery get method to do our Ajax request to X.

const xFetcherPromise = new Promise( // Create promise using “new” keyword and store it into a variable
function(resolve, reject) { // Promise constructor takes a function parameter which has resolve and reject parameters itself
$.get(“X”) // Launch the Ajax request
.done(function(X) { // Once the request is done…
resolve(X); // … resolve the promise with the X value as parameter
})
.fail(function(error) { // If the request has failed…
reject(error); // … reject the promise with the error as parameter
});
}
)

As seen in the above sample, the Promise object takes an executor function which takes two parameters resolve and reject. Those parameters are functions which when called are going to move the promise pending state to respectively a fulfilled and rejected state.

The promise is in pending state after instance creation and it’s executor function is executed immediately. Once one of the function resolve or reject is called in the executor function, the promise will call its associated handlers.

Promise handlers usage
To get the promise result (or error), we must attach to it handlers by doing the following:

xFetcherPromise
.then(function() {
Xconsole.log();
})
.Xcatch(function(err) {
console.log(err)
})

If the promise succeeds, resolve is executed and the function passed as .then parameter is executed.

If it fails, reject is executed and the function passed as .catch parameter is executed.

 

Note : If the promise has already been fulfilled or rejected when a corresponding handler is attached, the handler will be called, so there is no race condition between an asynchronous operation completing and its handlers being attached. (Ref: MDN)

 

External Resources
Template literals
Template literals is an expression interpolation for single and multiple-line strings.

In other words, it is a new string syntax in which you can conveniently use any JavaScript expressions (variables for instance).

Sample code
const name = “Nick”;
Hello ${name}, the following expression is equal to four : ${2+2};

// Hello Nick, the following expression is equal to four: 4

External resources
Tagged template literals
Template tags are functions that can be prefixed to a template literal. When a function is called this way, the first parameter is an array of the strings that appear between the template’s interpolated variables, and the subsequent parameters are the interpolated values. Use a spread operator … to capture all of them. (Ref: MDN).

 

Note : A famous library named styled-components heavily relies on this feature.

 

Below is a toy example on they work.

function highlight(strings, …values) {
const interpolation = strings.reduce((prev, current) => {
return prev + current + (values.length ? “<mark>” + values.shift() + “</mark>” : “”);
}, “”);

return interpolation;
}

const condiment = “jam”;
const meal = “toast”;

highlightIlike ${condiment} on ${meal}.;
// “I like <mark>jam</mark> on <mark>toast</mark>.”

A more interesting example:

function comma(strings, …values) {
return strings.reduce((prev, next) => {
let value = values.shift() || [];
value = value.join(“, “);
return prev + next + value;
}, “”);
}

const snacks = [‘apples’, ‘bananas’, ‘cherries’];
commaIlike ${snacks} to snack on.;
// “I like apples, bananas, cherries to snack on.”

External resources
Imports / Exports
ES6 modules are used to access variables or functions in a module explicitly exported by the modules it imports.

I highly recommend to take a look at MDN resources on import/export (see external resources below), it is both straightforward and complete.

Explanation with sample code
Named exports
Named exports are used to export several values from a module.

 

Note : You can only name-export first-class citizens that have a name.

 

// mathConstants.js
export const pi = 3.14;
export const exp = 2.7;
export const alpha = 0.35;

// ————-

// myFile.js
import { pi, exp } from ‘./mathConstants.js’; // Named import — destructuring-like syntax
console.log(pi) // 3.14
console.log(exp) // 2.7

// ————-

// mySecondFile.js
import * as constants from ‘./mathConstants.js’; // Inject all exported values into constants variable
console.log(constants.pi) // 3.14
console.log(constants.exp) // 2.7

While named imports looks like destructuring, they have a different syntax and are not the same. They don’t support default values nor deep destructuring.

Besides, you can do aliases but the syntax is different from the one used in destructuring:

import { foo as bar } from ‘myFile.js’; // foo is imported and injected into a new bar variable

Default import / export
Concerning the default export, there is only a single default export per module. A default export can be a function, a class, an object or anything else. This value is considered the “main” exported value since it will be the simplest to import. Ref: MDN

// coolNumber.js
const ultimateNumber = 42;
export default ultimateNumber;

// ————

// myFile.js
import number from ‘./coolNumber.js’;
// Default export, independently from its name, is automatically injected into number variable;
console.log(number) // 42

Function exporting:

// sum.js
export default function sum(, ) {
yxreturn x + y;
}
// ————-

// myFile.js
import sum from ‘./sum.js’;
const result = sum(1, 2);
console.log(result) // 3

External resources
JavaScript this
this operator behaves differently than in other languages and is in most cases determined by how a function is called. (Ref: MDN).

This notion is having many subtleties and being quite hard, I highly suggest you to deep dive in the external resources below. Thus, I will provide what I personally have in mind to determine what this is equal to. I have learned this tip from this article written by Yehuda Katz.

function myFunc() {

}

// After each statement, you find the value of this in myFunc

myFunc.call(“myString”, “hello”) // “myString” — first .call parameter value is injected into this

// In non-strict-mode
myFunc(“hello”) // window — myFunc() is syntax sugar for myFunc.call(window, “hello”)

// In strict-mode
myFunc(“hello”) // undefined — myFunc() is syntax sugar for myFunc.call(undefined, “hello”)

var person = {
myFunc: function() { … }
}

person.myFunc.call(person, “test”) // person Object — first call parameter is injected into this
person.myFunc(“test”) // person Object — person.myFunc() is syntax sugar for person.myFunc.call(person, “test”)

var myBoundFunc = person.myFunc.bind(“hello”) // Creates a new function in which we inject “hello” in this value
person.myFunc(“test”) // person Object — The bind method has no effect on the original method
myBoundFunc(“test”) // “hello” — myBoundFunc is person.myFunc with “hello” bound to this

External resources
Class
JavaScript is a prototype-based language (whereas Java is class-based language, for instance). ES6 has introduced JavaScript classes which are meant to be a syntactic sugar for prototype-based inheritance and not a new class-based inheritance model (ref).

The word class is indeed error prone if you are familiar with classes in other languages. If you do, avoid assuming how JavaScript classes work on this basis and consider it an entirely different notion.

Since this document is not an attempt to teach you the language from the ground up, I will believe you know what prototypes are and how they behave. But here are some links I found great to understand this notion:

Samples
Before ES6, prototype syntax:

var Person = function(name, age) {
this.name = name;
this.age = age;
}
Person.prototype.stringSentence = function() {
return “Hello, my name is ” + this.name + ” and I’m ” + this.age;
}

With ES6 class syntax:

class Person {
constructor(name, age) {
this.name = name;
this.age = age;
}

stringSentence() {
return “Hello, my name is ” + this.name + ” and I’m ” + this.age;
}
}

const myPerson = new Person(“Manu”, 23);
console.log(myPerson.age) // 23
console.log(myPerson.stringSentence()) // “Hello, my name is Manu and I’m 23

External resources
For prototype understanding:

For classes understanding:

Async Await
In addition to Promises, there is a new syntax you might encounter to handle asynchronous code named async / await.

The purpose of async/await functions is to simplify the behavior of using promises synchronously and to perform some behavior on a group of Promises. Just as Promises are similar to structured callbacks, async/await is similar to combining generators and promises. Async functions always returns a Promise. (Ref: MDN)

 

Note : You must understand what promises are and how they work before trying to understand async / await since they rely on it.

 

Note 2: await must be used in an async function, which means that you can’t use await in the top level of our code since that is not inside an async function.

 

Sample code
async function getGithubUser(username) { // async keyword allows usage of await in the function and means function returns a promise
const response = await fetch(https://api.github.com/users/${username}); // Execution is paused here until the Promise returned by fetch is resolved
return response.json();
}

getGithubUser(‘mbeaudru’)
.then(user => console.log(user)) // logging user response – cannot use await syntax since this code isn’t in async function
.catch(err => console.log(err)); // if an error is thrown in our async function, we will catch it here

Explanation with sample code
Async / Await is built on promises but they allow a more imperative style of code.

The async operator marks a function as asynchronous and will always return a Promise. You can use the await operator in an async function to pause execution on that line until the returned Promise from the expression either resolves or rejects.

async function myFunc() {
// we can use await operator because this function is async
return “hello world”;
}

myFunc().then(msg => console.log(msg)) // “hello world” — myFunc’s return value is turned into a promise because of async operator

When the return statement of an async function is reached, the Promise is fulfilled with the value returned. If an error is thrown inside an async function, the Promise state will turn to rejected. If no value is returned from an async function, a Promise is still returned and resolves with no value when execution of the async function is complete.

await operator is used to wait for a Promise to be fulfilled and can only be used inside an async function body. When encountered, the code execution is paused until the promise is fulfilled.

 

Note : fetch is a function that returns a Promise that allows to do an AJAX request

 

Let’s see how we could fetch a github user with promises first:

function getGithubUser(username) {
return fetch(https://api.github.com/users/${username}).then(response => response.json());
}

getGithubUser(‘mbeaudru’)
.then(user => console.log(user))
.catch(err => console.log(err));

Here’s the async / await equivalent:

async function getGithubUser(username) { // promise + await keyword usage allowed
const response = await fetch(https://api.github.com/users/${username}); // Execution stops here until fetch promise is fulfilled
return response.json();
}

getGithubUser(‘mbeaudru’)
.then(user => console.log(user))
.catch(err => console.log(err));

async / await syntax is particularly convenient when you need to chain promises that are interdependent.

For instance, if you need to get a token in order to be able to fetch a blog post on a database and then the author informations:

 

Note : await expressions needs to be wrapped in parentheses to call its resolved value’s methods and properties on the same line.

 

async function fetchPostById(postId) {
const token = (await fetch(‘token_url’)).json().token;
const post = (await fetch(/posts/${postId}?token=${token})).json();
const author = (await fetch(/users/${post.authorId})).json();

post.author = author;
return post;
}

fetchPostById(‘gzIrzeo64’)
.then(post => console.log(post))
.catch(err => console.log(err));

Error handling
Unless we add try / catch blocks around await expressions, uncaught exceptions – regardless of whether they were thrown in the body of your async function or while it’s suspended during await – will reject the promise returned by the async function. Using the throw statement in an async function is the same as returning a Promise that rejects. (Ref: PonyFoo).

 

Note : Promises behave the same!

 

With promises, here is how you would handle the error chain:

function getUser() { // This promise will be rejected!
return new Promise((res, rej) => rej(“User not found !”));
}

function getAvatarByUsername(userId) {
return getUser(userId).then(user => user.avatar);
}

function getUserAvatar(username) {
return getAvatarByUsername(username).then(avatar => ({ username, avatar }));
}

getUserAvatar(‘mbeaudru’)
.then(res => console.log(res))
.catch(err => console.log(err)); // “User not found !”

The equivalent with async / await:

async function getUser() { // The returned promise will be rejected!
throw “User not found !”;
}

async function getAvatarByUsername(userId) => {
const user = await getUser(userId);
return user.avatar;
}

async function getUserAvatar(username) {
var avatar = await getAvatarByUsername(username);
return { username, avatar };
}

getUserAvatar(‘mbeaudru’)
.then(res => console.log(res))
.catch(err => console.log(err)); // “User not found !”

External resources
Truthy / Falsy
In JavaScript, a truthy or falsy value is a value that is being casted into a boolean when evaluated in a boolean context. An example of boolean context would be the evaluation of an if condition:

Every value will be casted to true unless they are equal to:

false
0
”” (empty string)
null
undefined
NaN
Here are examples of boolean context:

if condition evaluation
if (myVar) {}

myVar can be any first-class citizen (variable, function, boolean) but it will be casted into a boolean because it’s evaluated in a boolean context.

After logical NOT ! operator
This operator returns false if its single operand can be converted to true; otherwise, returns true.

!0 // true — 0 is falsy so it returns true
!!0 // false — 0 is falsy so !0 returns true so !(!0) returns false
!!”” // false — empty string is falsy so NOT (NOT false) equals false

With the Boolean object constructor
new Boolean(0) // false
new Boolean(1) // true

In a ternary evaluation
myVar ? “truthy” : “falsy”

myVar is evaluated in a boolean context.

Static Methods
Short explanation
The static keyword is used in classes to declare static methods. Static methods are functions in a class that belongs to the class object and are not available to any instance of that class.

Sample code
class Repo{
static getName() {
return “Repo name is modern-js-cheatsheet”
}
}

//Note that we did not have to create an instance of the Repo class
console.log(Repo.getName()) //Repo name is modern-js-cheatsheet

let = rnew Repo();
console.log(.rgetName()) //Uncaught TypeError: repo.getName is not a function

Detailed explanation
Static methods can be called within another static method by using the this keyword, this doesn’t work for non-static methods though. Non-static methods cannot directly access static methods using the this keyword.

Calling other static methods from a static method.
To call a static method from another static method, the this keyword can be used like so;

class Repo{
static getName() {
return “Repo name is modern-js-cheatsheet”
}

static modifyName(){
return this.getName() + ‘-added-this’
}
}

console.log(Repo.modifyName()) //Repo name is modern-js-cheatsheet-added-this

Calling static methods from non-static methods.
Non-static methods can call static methods in 2 ways;

To get access to a static method from a non-static method we use the class name and call the static method like a property. e.g ClassName.StaticMethodName

class Repo{
static getName() {
return “Repo name is modern-js-cheatsheet”
}

useName(){
return Repo.getName() + ‘ and it contains some really important stuff’
}
}

// we need to instantiate the class to use non-static methods
let = rnew Repo()
console.log(.ruseName()) //Repo name is modern-js-cheatsheet and it contains some really important stuff

Static methods can be called as properties on the constructor object.

class Repo{
static getName() {
return “Repo name is modern-js-cheatsheet”
}

useName(){
//Calls the static method as a property of the constructor
return this.constructor.getName() + ‘ and it contains some really important stuff’
}
}

// we need to instantiate the class to use non-static methods
let = rnew Repo()
console.log(.ruseName()) //Repo name is modern-js-cheatsheet and it contains some really important stuff

External resources
Glossary

Scope
The context in which values and expressions are “visible,” or can be referenced. If a variable or other expression is not “in the current scope,” then it is unavailable for use.

Source: MDN

Variable mutation
A variable is said to have been mutated when its initial value has changed afterward.

var myArray = [];
myArray.push(“firstEl”) // myArray is being mutated

A variable is said to be immutable if it can’t be mutated.

Check MDN Mutable article for more details.

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